Konstantinos Papadopoulos 1 , Irene Nikolaou 2 , Nikolaos Anagnostou 1
1. RN, General Hospital of Patras “Agios Andreas”
2. RN, MSc, University Hospital of Ioannina


Introduction: Laryngeal cancer is responsible for various physical and psychosocial problems for the patients who often exhibit high levels of anxiety and depression.
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore anxiety and depression levels of laryngeal cancer patients after total or partial laryngectomy, comparing three groups with different clinical traits.
Methodology: This study follows a cross-sectional survey design. The population of the study included 168 hospitalized patients from two large urban hospitals from Athens and Thessaloniki. Sixty five patients (38.7%) had total laryngectomy as part of their treatment (group A), 63 patients (37.5%) had partial laryngectomy or other treatment (radiation or chemotherapy) with
voice maintenance (group B) and 40 patients (23.8%) had also total laryngectomy but they participated additionally in a self-care training program (group C). This survey used the following instruments: a) a demographic data and clinical traits questionnaire, b) the Self Rated Depression Scale (SRDS- Zung) and c) the Self Rated Anxiety Scale (SRAS-Zung). Statistical analysis
included Mann-Whitney U test, KruskalWallis test and Chi-square test, using SPSS 15 statistical package.
Results: Overall 9.6% and 19% of patients exhibited symptoms of anxiety and depression respectively, while patients after laryngectomy (group A) presented the higher percentages. Both group B and C had lower anxiety and depression levels compared with group A (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was found between group B and C for anxiety (p=0.222) and depression (p=0.198).
Conclusions: Patients after laryngectomy exhibit high anxiety and depression levels. It is suggested that training programs promoting self-care may help anxiety management and prevent depression after the traumatizing experience of laryngectomy.
Keywords: Anxiety, depression, laryngeal cancer, laryngectomy, self-care program.
Total Words Count: 264




Konstantinos Papadopoulos 1 , Irene Nikolaou 2 , Nikolaos Anagnostou 1 , Eleni Apostolou 3

1. Psychologist, General Hospital of Thessaloniki “AHEPA”
2. RN, General Hospital of Athens “Ippokration”
3. Midwife, MSc, University General & Maternity Hospital “Elena Venizelou”

Introduction: There was a time when it was natural and inevitable to have children. Marriage was expected to lead to procreation, and parenthood was perceived as a significant life achievement. The situation changed with the advent of contraception, when it became possible to plan whether and when to have children. Research has mainly focused on the motives of people to have children, with little attention given to their desire for a child, which has been debated mostly by psychoanalysts, philosophers and anthropologists.
Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the desire for a child among Greek individuals who had procreated through various assisted reproductive methods (sperm donation, oocyte donation and surrogate mothers).
Methodology: A Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenology design was used to explore the participants' subjective experiences with assisted reproductive methods. The sample comprised 19 Greek women who had conceived with assisted reproduction methods, and retrospectively described their overall experience, during an in-depth interview in (from 2009-2012). The data analysis was conducted according to the diekelmann, allen, and tanner's technique (1989).
Results: Results showed the following four basic categories which reflect different experiences in the development of a desire to have a child. a)emergence of a desire with the realization that because of their age, women may not be able to reproduce, b) desire for a child as a fundamental aspect in the formation of their identity, c) desire for a child when life conditions were appropriate, and d) desire for a child, as a compensation for past abortion(s).
Conclusions: The desire to have a child is complex and is described more as a process, than as a state or personality trait. It gradually develops, while its nature and intensity fluctuates over time. Appropriate support for women and their partner can help them develop an increased awareness of their motives to have a child by resorting to assisted reproduction technologies, and can facilitate the process of decision-making in their pursuit to become parents.
Key Words: Assisted reproduction, desire for a child, infertility, phenomenology, pregnancy
Total Words Count: 326



Konstantinos Papadopoulos 1 , Irene Nikolaou 2

1. RN, General Hospital of Thessaloniki “AHEPA”
2. Student, Educational Technical Institute of Thessaloniki, Nursing Department

Introduction: Infertility seems to be a multidimensional health issue with personal, economic and social dimensions. According to the World Health organization (WHO), approximately 8-10% of couples are facing some kind of infertility problem. Infertility is defined as the inability of getting pregnant after trying for at least 6 months or one year, for women over 35 years old, without use of birth control means and while having normal sexual intercourse.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the causes οf infertility, as well as the risk factors.
Methodology: The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly of the last five years in the “PubMed” and “Cinahl” data bases which referred to the causes οf infertility, as well as the risk factors.
Results: During recent years, it has been noticed a remarkable increase in the prevalence of infertility, globally. According to the literature, nowadays, infertility occurs not only due to health problems but it may also be a result of the choices imposed by the modern lifestyle. Results of recent studies indicate that, regarding women's aspect, problems of fallopian tubes, ovary,
matrix or disorders menstruation, are the main causes of infertility, while in regard to men's aspect, the poor quality of sperm and varicocele. Other contributing factors were environmental, socio-economic as well as advanced age of child-bearing and smoking.
Conclusions: As it is supported by published evidence, infertility is an issue of great complexity, which threatens with demographic problem. Information of couples regarding risk factors consist the cornerstone for prevention.
Key Words: Couple, infertility, risk factors.
Total Words Count: 264